学校开学了，这意味着青少年运动的时间到了. It’s a time of year we sports doctors enjoy as it gives us the chance to help those patients we really enjoy helping – healthy athletes that just want to compete. Successful competition doesn’t just mean rigorous practices and training sessions; it also requires a great deal of preparation to help make safe competition more likely.
As someone that participated in high school and college level sports in Texas, 我可以告诉你，北卡罗来纳州东部的高温和潮湿可不是闹着玩的. One of the most important aspects of healthy participation in sports is adequate hydration. This does not mean sodas; oftentimes, this will be detrimental to an athletes’ health and will actually DEHYDRATE them. Water is the main thing that should be ingested; sports drinks themselves are full of sugar and unnecessary. It is a highly unusual scenario in which an athlete exerts and sweats so much that their body chemistry is altered enough to the point of requiring electrolyte replenishment via a sports drink. 水是关键的饮料，应该经常喝水. It is not a sign of toughness to restrict water intake, or a sign of weakness to need water. 应该经常、频繁地喝水. Athletes should drink water whenever possible and not just when thirsty; sometimes, 如果等到非常渴的时候, they may have entered the initial stages of heat exhaustion which can lead to heat stroke. 球员，尤其是教练，不应该让事情发展到这个阶段. Avoidance of athletic activity outdoors at the hottest points of the day should avoided if possible.
同样，营养也非常重要. 不应该不吃饭. Athletes are burning calories and these must be appropriately replaced with a BALANCED diet. Empty calories such as sodas and candy are not adequate and not healthy; in fact they are detrimental to performance. 适当的食物摄入量需要保持恒定, 不仅仅是在比赛当天或赛前. Everyday adequate nutrition needs to be achieved to keep the body in optimal operating condition. 新鲜水果和蔬菜是至关重要的, as well as enough healthy proteins especially when weight training is a significant part of the training regimen. Fish such as salmon are an extremely good source of protein and provide a high content of omega acids essential for brain health as well. 没有足够的蛋白质摄入，肌肉就不能形成或维持. 没有足够的卡路里，能量水平就无法维持.
抽筋与营养有关. 当我在密苏里州参加一个SEC橄榄球队的训练时, the training staff always used to say cramps are a product of poor preparation and are the only injury that is totally preventable. They did not feel too sorry for those athletes that cramped although they obviously would tend to them with the utmost care. 每场足球赛之前, the training staff to include the doctors would drink a shot of pickle juice prior to running on the field to the sidelines as an acknowledgment of the need for proper hydration and electrolyte balance. 适当的饮食, 当持续进食时, 加上充足的水合作用, 是否应该提供正确的电解质平衡来防止抽筋. Once cramps are present gentle and gradual stretching of the affected muscles should take place. 此外，还需要补充电解质. 运动饮料在这种情况下很有用. Other options include pickle juice and even packets of mustard and ketchup. 然而，目标应该是预防抽筋.
另一种防止受伤的方法是适当的热身. Muscles need time to stretch and elongate before engaging in explosive activities; this is known as introducing “creep” into the muscles and tendons. Weight training should be built up to; if one has not trained regularly with weights or has taken some time off from weight training, 它需要逐步引入(或重新引入)。. Form should always be emphasized overweight; ego lifting will only lead to injuries. 在做深蹲或腿部按压等活动时, knee wraps can be very helpful for reducing discomfort and protecting the joint. 如果使用换行, I recommend the direction of the wrap to move the kneecap to the center of the body; that is, 围巾应该从膝盖后面开始, 在侧面, 从内侧取膝盖骨. This helps ensure appropriate tracking of the kneecap as the tendency is for the kneecap to want to slide to the outside, 尤其是对于那些没有足够股四头肌质量的人. 负重训练, adequate protein intake should be a priority otherwise muscle gains will not occur.
One specific injury that should be discussed is the torn ACL (anterior cruciate ligament). 大多数运动员都听说过这个. 由于种种原因，这在年轻运动员中并不罕见, 尤其是年轻的女性. Younger athletes do not always have the same level of muscle and body control that older athletes do; this can leave them susceptible to injury. Pre-practice and pre-game warm up routines dedicated to appropriate landing and body biomechanics have shown great success at reducing ACL injuries. However, upon cessation of these quick pre-activity exercises, the injury rate returns to baseline. 女运动员, 尤其是在排球这样的运动中, 篮球, 和足球, should have these exercises incorporated into their routines before every game and practice session. 预防永远是最好的行动.
尽管做好了充分的准备，伤病还是会发生. 在这种情况下，应寻求训练有素的医疗帮助. 运动是一种极好的娱乐方式，通过保持身材来保持健康. 希望, the things mentioned above can help guide people towards strategies for staying healthy and safe while enjoying these activities. 在进行任何饮食或特定的训练计划之前, make sure you consult with your own trained medical provider so that you can make sure each plan is tailored to your specific needs.
关于博士. 迪米特里·托马斯:博士. Thomas is an Orthopedic Surgeon specializing in Sports Medicine at UNC Orthopedics and Sports Medicine at Lenoir in Kinston. 他毕业于德克萨斯大学西南分校医学院, residency at William Beaumont Army Medical Center and sports medicine fellowship at University of Missouri. Dr. 托马斯是前美国军官.S. 陆军少校，服役13年.